A Natural History of Conewago Falls—The Waters of Three Mile Island
of the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed
With (forthcoming) commentary on the species including notes from the historic writings of nineteenth-century geologist, naturalist, and philologist Professor Samuel Steman Haldeman and Linnaean Society of Lancaster City and County naturalist Jacob Stauffer.
SPECIES STATUS KEY
extinct-a native species no longer existing or living.
extirpated-a native species no longer occurring in the wild in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed.
exotic-a free-ranging escaped or released non-native species or variety; most are unwanted pets, domesticated farm animals, or zoo specimens.
introduced-a non-native species that, following its release into the wild, has established a self-sustaining breeding population—often at the expense of one or more native species.
Federally Endangered-a native species listed by the United States government as imminently in danger of extinction.
PA Endangered-a native species listed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as imminently in danger of extinction or of extirpation as a breeding species in the state.
MD Endangered-a native species listed by the State of Maryland as imminently in danger of extinction or of extirpation as a breeding species in the state.
Federally Threatened-a native species listed by the United States government as under threat to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future.
PA Threatened-a native species listed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as under threat to become an endangered species in the state in the foreseeable future.
MD Threatened-a native species listed by the State of Maryland as under threat to become an endangered species in the state in the foreseeable future.
PA Candidate-an uncommon native species that could, in the future, become listed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as endangered or threatened in the state.
A LIST OF THE REPTILES
of the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed
Classified using traditional taxonomic ranks and selected cladistic groups.
The “bony vertebrates” including the Actinopterygians, the ray-finned fishes, and the Sarcopterygians, the lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods.
The lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods. All members of the clade Sarcopterygii presently occurring in the Susquehanna watershed (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans) are tetrapod descendants of extinct lobe-finned fishes.
The animals descended from fishes beginning in the Late Devonian epoch (about 370 million years ago), most having four limbs—the amphibians, the reptiles (including snakes, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and birds), and the mammals.
The group of living and extinct tetrapods having more similarity to the amniotes (reptiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals) than to modern amphibians (Lissamphibia).
The group of tetrapods, living and extinct, that deposit their eggs on land (not in water) or retain them within the body—the reptiles (including pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and birds) and the mammals.
The group of all living and extinct reptiles (including birds and the extinct Parareptilia).
The group of living and extinct sauropsid amniotes with two openings—temporal fenestra—behind each eye orbit.
The non-avian and avian reptiles.
For images and descriptions of the avian reptiles—the members of the traditional taxonomic class Aves—click the “Birds” tab at the top of this page.
The group of living and extinct diapsid sauropsids that is comprised of phytosaurs, crocodilians, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and birds—all descended from a shared Early Triassic ancestor.
The group of archosaurs more closely related to crocodilians than birds. Includes Galtonia gibbidens, an extinct Late Triassic pseudosuchian known only from bones and teeth recovered from strata in the Gettysburg Basin’s New Oxford Formation at the bottom of a shaft at the Le Crone copper prospect near Manchester, York County, Pennsylvania. The species was discovered there by Atreus Wanner, then described by Edward Cope as Thecodontosaurus gibbidens in 1878. It lived more than 220 million years ago.
The group of archosaurs most resembling birds (includes pterosaurs and dinosaurs).
For images and descriptions of the dinosaur life once found in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed, click the “Geology, Fossils, and More” tab at the top of this page.
For images and descriptions of the birds—the traditional taxonomic class Aves—click the “Birds” tab at the top of this page.
Crother, Brian I. (Chair) Committee On Standard English And Scientific Names. 2017. “Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding”. Eighth Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular No. 43. Shoreview, MN. pp. 1-102.
Haldeman, Samuel Steman. 1844. “Natural History of Lancaster County: Reptilia—Reptiles”. I. Daniel Rupp’s History of Lancaster County. Gilbert Hills. Lancaster, PA. pp.471-472.
Maryland Natural Heritage Program. 2016. List of Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Animals of Maryland. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 58 Taylor Avenue, Annapolis, MD 21401.
Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. PNHP Species Lists. www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Species.aspx Accessed August 14, 2019.
Shaffer, Larry L. 1991. Pennsylvania Amphibians and Reptiles. Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission. Harrisburg, PA.
Species Accounts—Pennsylvania Amphibian and Reptile Survey. Website: https://paherpsurvey.org/species.php Accessed 29 July, 2019.
Stauffer, Jacob. 1869. “Herpetology: Class of Reptiles”. J. I. Mombert’s An Authentic History of Lancaster County. J. E. Barr and Company. Lancaster, PA. pp.574-576.
Stose, George W. and Jonas, Anna I. 1939. Geology and Mineral Resources of York County, Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey. Fourth Series. Bulletin C 67.
United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. http://nas.er.usgs.gov Accessed August 18, 2019.