A Natural History of Conewago Falls—The Waters of Three Mile Island
of the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed
With (forthcoming) commentary on the species including notes from the historic writings of nineteenth-century geologist, naturalist, and philologist Professor Samuel Steman Haldeman and Linnaean Society of Lancaster City and County naturalist Jacob Stauffer.
SPECIES STATUS KEY
extinct-a native species no longer existing or living.
extirpated-a native species no longer occurring in the wild in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed.
exotic-a free-ranging escaped or released non-native species or variety; most are unwanted pets, domesticated farm animals, or zoo specimens.
introduced-a non-native species released into the wild, including amphibians stocked to create temporary populations as well as those that establish self-sustaining breeding populations—often at the expense of one or more native species.
Federally Endangered-a native species listed by the United States government as imminently in danger of extinction.
PA Endangered-a native species listed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as imminently in danger of extinction or of extirpation as a breeding species in the state.
MD Endangered-a native species listed by the State of Maryland as imminently in danger of extinction or of extirpation as a breeding species in the state.
Federally Threatened-a native species listed by the United States government as under threat to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future.
PA Threatened–a native species listed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as under threat to become an endangered species in the state in the foreseeable future.
MD Threatened-a native species listed by the State of Maryland as under threat to become an endangered species in the state in the foreseeable future.
PA Candidate-an uncommon native species that could, in the future, become listed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as endangered or threatened in the state.
A LIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS
of the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed
Classified using traditional taxonomic ranks and selected cladistic groups.
The “bony vertebrates” including the Actinopterygians, the ray-finned fishes, and the Sarcopterygians, the lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods.
The lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods. All members of the clade Sarcopterygii presently occurring in the Susquehanna watershed (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans) are tetrapod descendants of extinct lobe-finned fishes.
The animals, living and extinct, that descended from fishes beginning in the Late Devonian epoch (about 370 million years ago), most having four limbs—the amphibians, the reptiles (including snakes, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and birds), and the mammals.
The group of living and extinct tetrapods having more similarity to modern amphibians (Lissamphibia) than to the Reptiliomorpha (the clade including the amniotes—reptiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals).
Order-Temnospondyli: an order(?) of extinct(?) early amphibians of the mid-Carboniferous Period through the Early Cretaceous epoch—about 330 to 120 million years ago. Continuing research suggests that some Temnospondyli amphibians are ancestral to modern amphibians (Lissamphibia).
Family-Metoposauridae: an extinct family of large Triassic amphibians.
Acris crepitans (Cricket Frog)-extirpated? PA Endangered
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)
Lithobates clamitans (Green Frog)
Lithobates palustris (Pickerel Frog)
Lithobates pipiens (Northern Leopard Frog)
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)
Crother, Brian I. (Chair) Committee on Standard English and Scientific Names. 2017. “Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding”. Eighth Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular No. 43. Shoreview, MN. pp. 1-102.
Haldeman, Samuel Steman. 1844. “Natural History of Lancaster County: Amphibia”. I. Daniel Rupp’s History of Lancaster County. Gilbert Hills. Lancaster, PA. p.472.
Maryland Natural Heritage Program. 2016. List of Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Animals of Maryland. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 58 Taylor Avenue, Annapolis, MD 21401.
Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. PNHP Species Lists. www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Species.aspx Accessed August 14, 2019.
Shaffer, Larry L. 1991. Pennsylvania Amphibians and Reptiles. Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission. Harrisburg, PA.
Sigurdsen, T., and Bolt, J. R. 2010. “The Lower Permian Amphibamid Doleserpeton (Temnospondyli: Dissorophoidea), the Interrelationships of Amphibamids, and the Origin of Modern Amphibians”. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 30:5. pp. 1360-1377.
Species Accounts—Pennsylvania Amphibian and Reptile Survey. Website: https://paherpsurvey.org/species.php Accessed 29 July, 2019.
Stauffer, Jacob. 1869. “Herpetology: Class of Reptiles”. J. I. Mombert’s An Authentic History of Lancaster County. J. E. Barr and Company. Lancaster, PA. pp.574-576.