Birds of Conewago Falls

BIRDS OF CONEWAGO FALLS

The Birds of the Lower Susquehanna River and its Floodplain within the Gettysburg Basin
Including
The Birds of Three Mile Island 

With an Image Gallery and Annotations on the Status of the Species 

Checklist of the Birds of Conewago Falls on the Susquehanna River thumbnail.
Click the image to view the Birds of Conewago Falls checklist. This PDF file can be printed legal size.

The Birds of Conewago Falls checklist is current through 2011.  Sighting records were accumulated by the author from his own files and from issues of Pennsylvania Birds, the journal of the Pennsylvania Society for Ornithology.  The list includes the 239 species of birds seen from 1980 through 2011.

You can browse more recent bird sightings by exploring the Pennsylvania eBird website (https://ebird.org/pa/home).  There, you’ll find up-to-date records for each of the eBird “hotspots” in the Birds of Conewago Falls checklist coverage area.  You can generate bar charts for each species recorded at each site.  You can even add your own sightings and begin creating your own lists for locations near and far.  eBird is a global project of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.  In Pennsylvania, it’s a collaborative effort of the Pennsylvania Society for Ornithology, Pennsylvania Audubon, and the Pennsylvania Game Commission, which manages the project in the state.  It really is a tremendous resource.

The composite checklist that follows includes sightings from the original printed checklist, more recent eBird sightings from various “hotspots” within the checklist area, and selected historical records and commentary.

From the Editor:

We’d like to extend a sincere Thank You to all those dedicated observers who took the time to enter their bird sightings from along the Susquehanna in the Gettysburg Basin into the eBird database.  Your entries not only make eBird the fascinating resource that it is but they also enabled us here at “Life in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed” to produce the birding hotspot locator and composite checklist.  Well done and happy birding to each of you!

Editor


Birding Hotspots Gettysburg Basin Conewago Falls
eBird hotspots in the Birds of Conewago Falls checklist coverage area: the Susquehanna River and its floodplain in the Gettysburg Basin. (Base image from United States Geological Survey Historical Topographic Map Collection-1984)

eBird HOTSPOTS

in the Birds of Conewago Falls Checklist Coverage Area

  1. Highspire Reservoir Park and Lisa Lake—(Alluvial Terrace Wetlands/remnants of Pennsylvania Canal—Dauphin County)
  2. Susquehanna River-Middletown Access—(mouth of Swatara Creek—Dauphin County)
  3. Canal Lock Recreation Area—(T.M.I. Park Boat Ramp/Neff Lock—Dauphin County)
  4. Susquehanna River-Goldsboro Boat Launch—(Lake Frederic—Dauphin County)
  5. Susquehanna River-Falmouth Access—(Conewago Falls/York Haven Dam/Collins Lock & Scrable Lock wetlands—Lancaster County)
  6. Susquehanna River-King’s River Haven Access—(Lancaster County)
  7. Prescot(t) Road—(Bainbridge Lock Swamp/Alluvial Terrace Wetlands/Wet Hardwood Flatwoods—Lancaster County)
  8. Conoy Canal Trail—(segment of Northwest Lancaster County River Trail/Pennsylvania Canal towpath/Alluvial Terrace Forest)
  9. Bainbridge Islands—(alluvial Riverine Grassland islands—Lancaster County)
  10. Goldsboro Boat Launch—(riverine shoreline—York County)
  11. Brunner Island—(flyash pond shorebird habitat during second half of 20th century [now diminished]—York County/river in Lancaster County)
  12. Gut Road—(Black Gut river backwater/Lowe’s Island—York County)
  13. Saginaw Boat Launch—(York County/river in Lancaster County)

THE BIRDS OF CONEWAGO FALLS

COMPOSITE CHECKLIST

1980 through June, 2019


With eBird sightings and commentary on the species—plus notes from the historic writings of Linnaean Society of Lancaster City and County naturalist Judge John J. Libhart, and Dr. Herbert H. Beck, Curator of the Franklin and Marshall College Museum.


SPECIES STATUS KEY

historic-a species recorded only prior to 1980.

extinct-a native species no longer existing or living.

extirpated-a native species no longer occurring in the wild in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed.

exotic-a free-ranging escaped or released non-native species or variety; most are unwanted pets, domesticated farm animals, captive-bred game, or zoo specimens.

feral-exotic animals that begin reproducing in the wild, but retain dependence upon humans for survival of their population.

introduced-a non-native species that, following its release into the wild, has established a self-sustaining breeding population—often at the expense of one or more native species.

Federally Endangered-a native species listed by the United States government as imminently in danger of extinction.

PA Endangered-a native species listed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as imminently in danger of extinction or of extirpation as a breeding species in the state.

MD Endangered-a native species listed by the State of Maryland as imminently in danger of extinction or of extirpation as a breeding species in the state.

Federally Threatened-a native species listed by the United States government as under threat to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future.

PA Threatened-a native species listed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as under threat to become an endangered species in the state in the foreseeable future.

MD Threatened-a native species listed by the State of Maryland as under threat to become an endangered species in the state in the foreseeable future.

Denotes a breeding bird—a species that, during the period covered by this list, has nested in the checklist area or used the area as supporting habitat while nesting nearby.


THE BIRDS OF CONEWAGO FALLS

The Susquehanna River and its floodplain in the Gettysburg Basin

Classified using traditional taxonomic ranks and selected cladistic groups.

Domain-Eukaryota

Kingdom-Animalia

Phylum-Chordata

Subphylum-Vertebrata

Superclass-Osteichthyes/Clade-Euteleostomi:

The “bony vertebrates” including the Actinopterygians, the ray-finned fishes, and the Sarcopterygians, the lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods.

Clade-Sarcopterygii:

The lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods.  All members of the clade Sarcopterygii presently occurring in the Susquehanna watershed (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans) are tetrapod descendants of extinct lobe-finned fishes.

Superclass-Tetrapoda:

The animals descended from fishes beginning in the Late Devonian epoch (about 370 million years ago), most having four limbs—the amphibians, the reptiles (including snakes, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and birds), and the mammals.

Clade-Reptiliomorpha:

The group of living and extinct tetrapods having more similarity to the amniotes (reptiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals) than to modern amphibians (Lissamphibia).

Clade-Amniota:

The group of tetrapods, living and extinct, that deposit their eggs on land (not in water) or retain them within the body—the reptiles (including pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and birds) and the mammals.

Clade-Sauropsida:

The group of all living and extinct reptiles—the traditional taxonomic class Reptilia (including birds and the extinct Parareptilia).

Clade-Diapsida

The group of living and extinct sauropsid amniotes with two openings—temporal fenestra—behind each eye orbit.

Two temporal fenestra openings are noted on the skull of the Meleagris gallopovo, the Wild Turkey.  Some diapsids have lost temporal fenestra openings over time; snakes have none and modern lizards have only one behind each eye.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image www.si.edu)

Clade-Archosauria:

The group of living and extinct diapsid sauropsids that is comprised of phytosaurs, crocodilians, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and birds—all descended from a shared Early Triassic ancestor.

Crocodilians, including the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), are the closest living relatives of modern birds (Aves).  Crocodilians and birds share a common Early Triassic epoch ancestor and are included, along with their extinct relatives, in the clade Archosauria.  Archosaurs (living and extinct) most resembling crocodilians are grouped in the clade Pseudosuchia.  Those most resembling birds, including dinosaurs and pterosaurs, are grouped in the clade Avemetatarsalia.

Clade-Avemetatarsalia:

The group of archosaurs most resembling birds (includes pterosaurs and dinosaurs).

The clade Avemetatarsalia includes the familiar membrane-winged pterosaurs, which, having first appeared during the Late Triassic epoch about 228 million years ago, are the earliest known vertebrates capable of flight.  Rhamphorhynchus muensteri (seen here) lived during the Late Jurassic epoch about 165 to 150 million years ago.  It and other non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs were long-tailed and much smaller than their counterparts, the pterodactyloid giants including the members of the Pterodactylus and Pteranodon genera, some of which had wingspans exceeding 20 feet, enabling them to soar and cover great distances in search of prey that probably included fish.  Though, due to their ability to fly, they resemble modern birds, the lineage of the pterosaurs did not survive the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago.  The pterosaurs have no living descendants.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, replica of the Eichstatt/New Haven fossil specimen, www.si.edu)

Clade-Dinosauromorpha:

The group of archosaurs more closely related to dinosaurs and birds than pterosaurs.

Clade-Dinosauria:

The living and extinct dinosaurs and birds.

Clade-Ornithoscelida:

The group of extinct “bird-hipped” dinosaurs (Ornithischia) and the living and extinct “three-toed” dinosaurs and birds (Theropoda).

Clade-Theropoda:

The living and extinct bipedal hollow-boned “three-toed” ornithoscelidian dinosaurs and birds.

Due in large part to their close association with humans, House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) are currently the planet’s most widely distributed and successful species of theropod.

Clade-Neotheropoda:

The “new theropods”—Coelophysis and the more advanced dinosaurs and birds—possibly the only theropod survivors of the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event (201.3 million years ago).

Dinosaur footprint trace fossils known as Atreipus milfordensis have been found in Gettysburg Formation sediments near Conewago Falls.  The tracks, made by Coelophysis bauri or a similar Late Triassic neotheropod coelophysoid dinosaur, are in deposits more than 200 million years old.  Birds and extinct coelophysoid dinosaurs, including Coelophysis bauri, share a common neotheropod ancestor.  They also share a significant anatomical feature: a furcula, better known as a wishbone, which in coelophysoids consisted of two unconnected bones, but in later dinosaurs and birds became a fused reinforcement joining the left and right forelimb assemblies.  Life-sized model of Coelophysis bauri, State Museum of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, PA

Clade-Averostra:

The “bird snouts”—the most recent common ancestor of Allosaurus fragilis and Ceratosaurus nasicornis, and its living and extinct descendants.  The averostrans are the only theropods known to have survived beyond the Early Jurassic epoch (174.1 million years ago).

The Late Jurassic species Ceratosaurus nasicornis was a member of the Ceratosauria, a clade of theropods with a lineage that may have diverged from that of other dinosaurs and birds as long ago as the Early Jurassic epoch.  Ceratosaurs possessed a bony horn on the upper mandible and, like birds, had fused pelvic bones and metatarsals.  Unlike the trend in the more direct ancestors of birds, the forelimbs of ceratosaurs were shortened.  Ceratosaurs disappeared during the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)

Clade-Tetanurae:

The group of theropods more closely related to birds than to the Ceratosaurus dinosaurs.

Clade-Orionides

The most recent common ancestor of Allosaurus fragilis, Megalosaurus bucklandii, and Passer domesticus (House Sparrow), and its living and extinct descendants.

The clawed phalanges and fused metatarsals comprising the bird-like foot of Allosaurus fragilis.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)

Clade-Avetheropoda:

The “bird theropods”—the extinct carnosaurs and the living and extinct coelurosaurs, including birds.

The carnosaur Allosaurus fragilis thrived during the Late Jurassic epoch.  Carnosauria, those tetanurans sharing a more recent common ancestor with Allosaurus than with birds, emerged during the Middle Jurassic epoch and were extinct by the middle of the Late Cretaceous epoch about 90 million years ago.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)

Clade-Coelurosauria:

(Tyrannoraptora)-The group of living and extinct “bird theropods” more closely related to birds than carnosaurs.

The clade Coelurosauria includes the more narrowly defined clade Tyrannoraptora: the most recent common ancestor of Tyrannosaurus rex and Passer domesticus (House Sparrow), and its living and extinct descendants.  The Tyrannoraptora dinosaurs were annihilated by the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)
Tyrannosaurus rex forelimbs and femur.  Like Coelophysis bauri and birds including Passer domesticus (House sparrow), this giant dinosaur had a furcula, a wishbone, the small bone pictured here between the scapulae of the forearm segments.  In the living Tyrannosaurus rex, it would have been found reinforcing the connection between the left and right forearm assemblies at the caracoids, the fan-shaped bones seen here at the top of each scapula.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)

Clade-Maniraptoriformes:

The living and extinct dinosaurs and birds with feathers and wings.

The Late Cretaceous theropod Anzu wyliei belonged to a feathered group of maniraptoriformes known as the Oviraptorosauria, an extinct clade of bird-like dinosaurs.  The only surviving maniraptoriformes are the modern birds, all descendants of dinosaurs in the clade Avialae.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, Media Fact Sheet SI-135-2014)

Clade-Avialae:

The “bird-winged” dinosaurs—the most recent common ancestor of Archaeopteryx lithographica and Passer domesticus (House Sparrow), and its living and extinct descendants.

Archaeopteryx siemensii with feather impressions.  Archaeopteryx dinosaurs lived during the Late Jurassic epoch, about 150 million years ago.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, replica of the Berlin fossil specimen, www.si.edu)
Archaeopteryx lithographica with the furcula (wishbone) labeled.  Like other members of its genus, it had toothed jaws, three-fingered forelimbs, and a long bony tail.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, replica of the London fossil specimen, www.si.edu)

Clade-Avebrevicauda

The “birds with short tails”—the avialans with no greater than ten free vertebrae in the tail.

Clade-Pygostylia

The avialans with the final series of tail vertebrae fused to create a base for the retrices (tail feathers) of modern birds.

Clade-Ornithothoraces

The “bird thoraxes”—the avialans with lengthened coracoids, a keeled sternum for attachment of flight muscles, and a rib cage strengthened for flying.  Most ornithothoracine avialans with teeth in sockets within the jaws and fingers on the wings are included in the extinct clade Enantiornithes, most others, including all modern birds, are members of the clade Euornithes.

Clade-Euornithes

The group of avialans more closely related to modern birds than enantiornithes.  The clade includes the earliest known example of secondary flightlessness—Patagopteryx deferrariisi, a Late Cretaceous chicken-like flightless descendant of flight-capable ancestors.

Clade-Ornithurae

The “bird tails”—the most recent common ancestor of Hesperornis, Ichthyornis, and modern birds, and its living and extinct descendants.

Hesperornis regalis, a flightless ornithuran of the Late Cretaceous epoch (about 80 million years ago), had small teeth in longitudinal channels in the beak and weak wings without multiple fingers.  It had aquatic proclivities, swimming like a cormorant, loon, or grebe in pursuit of prey.  Like other ornithurans, its tail had seven or fewer free-moving vertebrae and five or fewer fused terminal vertebrae.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)

Class-Aves/Clade-Neornithes:

The avian reptiles—the modern birds—the only avialan dinosaurs to have survived the cosmic-collision-induced Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event (66 million years ago), recognized as the end of the Mesozoic Era and the beginning of the current Cenozoic Era.

A living avialan dinosaur, Meleagris gallopavo, the Wild Turkey, is a familiar member of the clade Neornithes, more commonly known as the traditional taxonomic class Aves, the birds.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)
The flexible furcula (wishbone) of Meleagris gallopavo, the Wild Turkey, like that of most modern birds capable of flight, provides shock-absorbing reinforcement of the skeletal structure attached to wing muscles.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)

Infraclass/Clade-Palaeognathae:

Neorniths with a lineage descending from an ancestor in common with members of the infraclass/clade Neognathae.  This “split” occurred about 72.9 million years ago, during the Late Cretaceous epoch—preceding the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction 66 million years ago.  Surviving palaeognaths include the flightless ratites (kiwis, cassowaries, ostriches, rheas, and emus), which have no keel on their sternum for attachment of flight muscles, and the tinamous, which are capable of limited flight.

The extinct palaeognath Lithornis promiscuus lived in western North America about 56.8 to 55.4 million years ago, during the late Paleocene through early Eocene epochs.  It was a more accomplished flier than its close relatives the tinamous.  Note the keel on the sternum (A) for attachment of flight muscles, an anatomical feature absent in ratites.  The furcula (B) was similar to the familiar wishbone of modern birds.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image of type specimen fossils, www.si.edu.)

Order-Casuariiformes

Family-Casuariidae

Dromaius novaehollandiae (Emu)-exotic

On occasion, the flightless Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a ratite, has been observed in the Susquehanna floodplain near Conewago Falls, possibly wandering after release as an intended target for one of the local “canned game hunts”.  (Smithsonian image, circa 1910, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, www.si.edu)

Infraclass/Clade-Neognathae:

Neornithes with a lineage descending from an ancestor in common with members of the infraclass/clade Palaeognathae.  This “split” occurred about 72.9 million years ago, during the Late Cretaceous epoch—preceding the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction 66 million years ago.  Neognathae includes all non-palaeognath birds sharing this common ancestor.

Neognaths, all the living birds other than palaeognaths, possess a keeled sternum for attachment of flight muscles.  This sizable example belongs to Meleagris gallopavo, the Wild Turkey, a heavy bird capable of explosive flight.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)

Superorder/Clade-Galloanserae:

Neognaths with a lineage descending from an ancestor in common with members of the clade Neoaves.  The “split” in the neognaths occurred about 71.9 million years ago.  Galloanserae includes the waterfowl (Anseriformes) and landfowl (Galliformes).  Galloanserae birds are dinosaur-brained—literally.  Many species are susceptible to taming and domestication (geese, swans, ducks, chickens, turkeys, etc.).  Because their behavior can easily be altered, often creating habitat-destroying concentrations of birds, they should not be offered food handouts.  Likewise, domestic varieties should not be released into the wild from captivity.

Like other species of landfowl and waterfowl, Gallus gallus, the Red Jungle Fowl, is a member of the superorder/clade Galloanserae.  It is the progenitor of the domestic chicken, tamed from wild populations in Asia more than 7,000 years ago.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)

Order-Anseriformes

Family-Anatidae

Anser anser (Graylag Goose including “Domestic Goose”)-exotic

Anser caerulescens (Snow Goose)

Anser cygnoides (Swan Goose including “Chinese Goose”)-exotic

Anser rossii (Ross’s Goose)-accidental [fall 2013]

Branta bernicula (Brant)

Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)

Cygnus olor (Mute Swan)-introduced

Cygnus buccinator (Trumpeter Swan)-accidental [summer 2011]

Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)

Tadorna tadorna (Common Shelduck)-exotic

Callonetta leucophrys (Ringed Teal)-exotic

Cairina moschata (Muscovy Duck)-exotic

Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)

Spatula discors (Blue-winged Teal)

Spatula cyanoptera (Cinnamon Teal)-exotic

Spatula clypeata (Northern Shoveler)

Mareca strepera (Gadwall)

Mareca americana (American Wigeon)

Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard wild form)

Anas platyrhynchos domesticus (Mallard polygamous form, including “Domestic Duck”)feral

Anas platyrhynchos x Anas rubripes (Mallard/American Black Duck hybrid)

Anas rubripes (American Black Duck)

Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)

Anas crecca (Green-winged Teal)

Aythya valisineria (Canvasback)

Aythya americana (Redhead)

Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck)

Aythya marila (Greater Scaup)

Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup)

Melanitta fusca (White-winged Scoter)

Melanitta americana (Black Scoter)-accidental [fall 2006]

Clanqula hyemalis (Long-tailed Duck)

Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead)

Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye)

Lophodytes cucullatus (Hooded Merganser)

Mergus merganser (Common Merganser)

Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)

Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy Duck)

Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Snow Geese
Snow Geese (Anser caerulescens).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Snow Geese
Snow Geese (Anser caerulescens).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ross's Goose
Ross’s Goose (Anser rossii).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Brant
Brant (Branta bernicula),  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Canada Geese
Canada Geese (Branta canadensis).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Mute Swan
Mute Swan (Cygnus olor).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Tundra Swans
Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Tundra Swans
Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus).
Ringed Teal (Callonetta leucophrys).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Lee Karney)
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Muscovy Duck
Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata)
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Wood Ducks
Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Blue-winged Teal
Blue-winged Teal (Spatula discors).
Cinnamon Teal (Spatula cyanoptera).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Gary Kramer)
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Shovelers
Northern Shovelers (Spatula clypeata).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Gadwall
Gadwall (Mareca strepera).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: American Wigeons
American Wigeons (Mareca americana).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Mallards
Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: domestic-type Mallards
Since the 1990s, feral hand-fed domestic-type Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), seen here in summer molt, have congregated into year-round non-migratory populations that, due to their relentless feeding and defecation, are fouling wetland, pond, and stream ecosystems in the lower Susquehanna valley.  Unlike wild Mallards, they are polygamous, gangs of drakes often pursuing females relentlessly, even into traffic, and sometimes killing the hens in their zeal to mate.  Feeding the ducks seems to be a “good deed”, but it’s actually creating the duck concentrations that pollute water and, due to their non-stop foraging, eliminate fish and other aquatic species.  They are also destroying habitat that migratory wild ducks use during their brief layovers as transients or while nesting.  To avoid decimation of their food supplies, all species of wild waterfowl occurring in the lower Susquehanna valley have evolved migratory survival strategies; they’re always on the move.  Libhart (1844 and 1869) describes enormous numbers of waterfowl migrating through Lancaster County in spring and fall, but few remaining to nest or spend the winter.  Their nomadic feeding behavior begins early in life, the precocial young leaving the nest within 24 hours of hatching to start foraging.  In northern latitudes, waterfowl linger in any one location only during the weeks of the year when food supplies are at their most abundant.  The layover occurs during a mid-summer molt into a flightless basic (eclipse) plumage, which is quickly followed by a molt into the more familiar alternate (breeding) plumage, just in time for autumn migration.  Their molting grounds have nearly an entire year to recover, being fully replenished for the birds’ return visit during the following summer.  The bottom line is this: concentrations of domesticated waterfowl provide no time for habitats to recover; their non-stop foraging obliterates ecosystems, interrupts the natural food chain, and displaces native wildlife.  Flocks of non-migratory waterfowl pollute water and wipe out aquatic plant communities.  They’re a menace.  So, PLEASE  DO NOT FEED WATERFOWL or release domestic birds and other animals into the wild.
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: American Black Ducks
American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Pintails
Northern Pintails (Anas acuta).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Green-winged Teal
Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca).
Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Ryan Hagerty)
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Redheads
Redheads (Aythya americana).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ring-necked Ducks
Ring-necked Ducks (Aythya collaris).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Scaup species
Scaup (Aythya species).
Greater Scaup (Aythya marila).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Donna A. Dewhurst)
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Lesser Scaup
Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis).
White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Dave Menke)
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Long-tailed Ducks/Oldsquaw
Long-tailed Ducks (Clanqula hyemalis) are also known as Oldsquaw.
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Buffleheads
Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Goldeneye
Common Goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula) and a first-winter male Bufflehead (upper right).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Hooded Mergansers
Male Hooded Mergansers (Lophodytes cucullatus).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Hooded Mergansers
Male Hooded Mergansers (Lophodytes cucullatus) displaying.
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Hooded Mergansers
One-year-old male Hooded Mergansers (Lophodytes cucullatus).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Hooded Mergansers
A pair of Hooded Mergansers (Lophodytes cucullatus).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Hooded Mergansers
Female Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) with young.
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Mergansers
Common Mergansers (Mergus merganser).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Mergansers
Common Mergansers (Mergus merganser).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Red-breasted Mergansers
Red-breasted Mergansers (Mergus serrator).
Birds/Waterfowl of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ruddy Duck
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis).

Order-Galliformes

Family-Odontophoridae

Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)-extirpated-present occurrences are exotic birds

Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Steve Maslowski)

Family-Phasianidae

Gallus gallus (Red Jungle Fowl)-exotic

Gallus gallus domesticus (“Domestic Chicken”)-exotic

Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant)-exotic

Meleagris gallopovo (Wild Turkey)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ring-necked Pheasant
A male Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ring-necked Pheasant
A female Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Wild Turkeys
Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopovo).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Wild Turkey displaying
A male Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) displaying.

Clade-Neoaves:

Neognaths with a lineage descending from an ancestor in common with members of the superorder/clade Galloanserae (waterfowl and landfowl).  The “split” in the neognaths occurred about 71.9 million years ago.  Neoaves includes the more than 9,000 surviving bird species that are not palaeognaths or galloanserans.

Tyto alba, the Barn Owl, is one of the more than 9,000 species of neoavians.  It has a distribution that includes portions of six continents.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)
The furcula (wishbone) of Tyto alba, the Barn Owl, is typical of the neoavians.  (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History image, www.si.edu)

Order-Caprimulgiformes

Family-Caprimulgidae

Chordeiles minor (Common Nighthawk)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Nighthawk
Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor).

Order-Apodiformes

Family-Apodidae

Chaetura pelagica (Chimney Swift)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Chimney Swifts
Chimney Swifts (Chaetura pelagica).

Family-Trochilidae

Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ruby-throated Hummingbird
A male Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ruby-throated Hummingbird
Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris).

Order-Cuculiformes

Family-Cuculidae

Coccyzus americanus (Yellow-billed Cuckoo)

Coccyzus erythropthalmus (Black-billed Cuckoo)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Yellow-billed Cuckoo
Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus).

Order-Columbiformes

Family-Columbidae

Columba livia (Rock Pigeon)introduced

Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared Dove)-introduced

Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon)-historic extinct

Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Rock Pigeons
Rock Pigeons (Columba livia).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Eurasian Collared Dove
Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Mourning Dove
Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura).

Order-Gruiformes

Family-Rallidae

Rallus limicola (Virginia Rail)

Porzana carolina (Sora)

Gallinula chloropus (Common Moorhen)

Fulica americana (American Coot)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Virginia Rails with young
Adult and young Virginia Rails (Rallus limicola).
Sora (Porzana carolina).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Dave Menke)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Moorhen
Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: American Coots
American Coots (Fulica americana).

Order-Podicipediformes

Family-Podicipedidae

Podilymbus podiceps (Pied-billed Grebe)

Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe)

Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Pied-billed Grebe
Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Horned Grebe
Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus) in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Horned Grebe
Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus) in winter (basic) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Red-necked Grebe
Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena).

Order-Charadriiformes

Family-Recurvirostridae

Himantopus mexicanus (Black-necked Stilt)-accidental [spring 1994]

Recurvirostra americana (American Avocet)-accidental [summer 1996]

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Black-necked Stilt
Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana).

Family-Charadriidae

Pluvialis squatarola (Black-bellied Plover)

Pluvialis dominica (American Golden Plover)

Charadrius semipalmatus (Semipalmated Plover)

Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Black-bellied Plover
Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola) in breeding (alternate) plumage.  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola) in winter (basic) plumage.  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Lee Karney)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: American Golden Plover
American Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica) in winter (basic) plumage.  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Killdeer
Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus).

Family-Scolopacidae

Limosa haemastica (Hudsonian Godwit)

Arenaria interpres (Ruddy Turnstone)

Calidris himantopus (Stilt Sandpiper)-accidental [fall 2000]

Calidris alba (Sanderling)

Calidris alpina (Dunlin)

Calidris bairdii (Baird’s Sandpiper)

Calidris minutilla (Least Sandpiper)

Calidris fuscicollis (White-rumped Sandpiper)

Calidris subruficollis (Buff-breasted Sandpiper)

Calidris melanotos (Pectoral Sandpiper)

Calidris pusilla (Semipalmated Sandpiper)

Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher)

Limnodromus scolopaceus (Long-billed Dowitcher)

Scolopax minor (American Woodcock)

Gallinago delicata (Wilson’s Snipe)

Actitus macularius (Spotted Sandpiper)

Tringa solitaria (Solitary Sandpiper)

Tringa flavipes (Lesser Yellowlegs)

Tringa semipalmata (Willet)-hypothetical [spring 1999]

Tringa melanoleuca (Greater Yellowlegs)

Phalaropus tricolor (Wilson’s Phalarope)

Phalaropus fulicarius (Red Phalarope)-accidental [spring 1993]

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ruddy Turnstone
Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Stilt Sandpiper (Calidris himantopus).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Lisa Hupp)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Sanderling
Sanderling (Calidris alba).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Dunlin (Calidris alpina).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Kristine Sowl)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Baird's Sandpiper
Baird’s Sandpiper (Calidris bairdii).
Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Dave Menke)
Pectoral Sandpiper (Calidris melanotos).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Lisa Hupp)
Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image)
Short-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Mark Danaher)
Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Lee Karney)
American Woodcocks (Scolopax minor).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Tom Tetzner)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Wilson's Snipe
The Wilson’s Snipe (Gallinago delicata), also known as the Common Snipe.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Spotted Sandpiper
The Spotted Sandpiper (Actitus macularius) is easily recognized, even at a distance, by the non-stop teetering of its body as it feeds.  Spotted Sandpipers are nesting summer residents along the vegetated shorelines of the Susquehanna at Conewago Falls.  Beck (1924) observed in the early 20th century that it “Breeds regularly in fields near water.”
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Spotted Sandpiper
The juvenile Spotted Sandpiper (Actitus macularius) lacks the black spots seen on the underside of adult birds in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Solitary Sandpiper
Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria).
Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Steve Hillebrand)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Willet
Willet (Tringa semipalmata).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Greater Yellowlegs
Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca).
Wilson’s Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Tom Koerner)
Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Kristine Sowl)

Family-Stercoraiidae

Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)-accidental [fall 2006]

Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Art Sowls)

Family-Laridae

Chroicocephalus philadelphia (Bonaparte’s Gull)

Hydrocoloeus minutus (Little Gull)-hypothetical [fall 1998]

Leucophaeus atricilla (Laughing Gull)

Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)

Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)

Larus glaucoides (Iceland Gull)-accidental [winter 1996-97]

Larus fuscus (Lesser Black-backed Gull)

Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)-accidental [winter 1980-81]

Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)

Onychoprion fuscatus (Sooty Tern)-accidental [fall 2006]

Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)

Chlidonias niger (Black Tern)-PA Endangered

Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)-PA Endangered

Sterna forsteri (Forster’s Tern)

Rynchops niger (Black Skimmer)-accidental [summer 2000]

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Bonaparte's Gulls
Bonaparte’s Gulls (Chroicocephalus philadelphia).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Bonaparte's Gull
Bonaparte’s Gulls (Chroicocephalus philadelphia).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Laughing Gull
An adult Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla) in breeding (alternate) plumage.  (Vintage 35mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Laughing Gull
A Laughing Gull in basic plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ring-billed Gull
The Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis) was notable to Beck (1924) when it was “Observed with L. philadephia (Bonaparte’s Gulls) in lower Susquehanna, March 25, 1923.”  Today, it is by far the most common member of the Laridae family occurring in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed.  It is an abundant migrant and winter resident.  Through summer, small numbers of non-breeding immature birds usually remain at Conewago Falls and elsewhere along the river.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ring-billed Gull
The Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis) is the larid most frequently found scavenging around parking lots looking for fast-food scraps and other edibles.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Herring Gull
An adult Herring Gull (Larus argentatus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Herring Gull
A first-fall Herring Gull (Larus argentatus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Iceland Gull
Iceland Gull (Larus glaucoides).  (Vintage 35mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Lesser Black-backed Gull
Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Great Black-backed Gull
Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Caspian Tern
Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia).
Black Tern (Chlidonias niger).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Tom Koerner)
Common Tern (Sterna hirundo).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Kayla Pelletier)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Forster's Tern
Forster’s Tern (Sterna forsteri).  (Vintage 35mm image)
Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Robert H. Burton)

Order-Gaviiformes

Family-Gaviidae

Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)-accidental [spring 2014]

Gavia immer (Common Loon)

Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Tim Bowman)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Loon
Common Loon (Gavia immer).

Order-Suliformes

Family-Phalacrocoracidae

Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Double-crested Cormorant
An adult Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Double-crested Cormorant
A non-adult Double-crested Cormorant.

Family-Anhingidae

Anhinga anhinga (Anhinga)-hypothetical [spring 2011]

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Anhinga
Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga).  (Vintage 35 mm image)

Order-Pelecaniformes

Family-Pelecanidae

Pelecanus onocrotalus (Great White Pelican)-exotic

Family-Ardeidae

Botaurus lentiginosus (American Bittern)-PA Endangered

Ixobrychus exilis (Least Bittern)-PA Endangered

Ardea herodius (Great Blue Heron)

Ardea alba (Great Egret)-PA Endangered

Egretta thula (Snowy Egret)

Egretta caerulea (Little Blue Heron)

Bubulcus ibis (Cattle Egret)

Butorides virescens (Green Heron)

Nycticorax nycticorax (Black-crowned Night Heron)PA Endangered

Nyctanassa violacea (Yellow-crowned Night Heron)PA Endangered

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: American Bittern
American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Least Bittern
Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis).  (Vintage 35 mm image) 
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Great Blue Heron
The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodius) nests at Conewago Falls.  If there happens to be low river flow during the late summer and early fall, they and other herons and egrets often congregate to feed among the Pothole Rocks.  Great Blue Herons will remain through the winter if ice does not block their access to prey.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Great Egret
Great Egret (Ardea alba).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Snowy Egret
Snowy Egret (Egretta thula).  (Vintage 35 mm image)   
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Little Blue Heron
Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Cattle Egret
Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Green Heron
Green Heron (Butorides virescens).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Green Heron
Green Heron (Butorides virescens).
Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Lee Karney)
A juvenile Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Lee Karney)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Yellow-crowned Night Heron
Yellow-crowned Night Herons (Nyctanassa violacea).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Yellow-crowned Night Herons
Juvenile Yellow-crowned Night Herons (Nyctanassa violacea).

Family-Threskiornithidae

Eudocimus albus (White Ibis)-accidental [summer 2012]

Plegadis falcinellus (Glossy Ibis)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: White Ibis
Adult (left) and first-spring (right) White Ibis (Eudocimus albus).  (Vintage 35 mm images)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Glossy Ibis
Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus).  (Vintage 35 mm image)

Order-Accipitriformes

Family-Cathartidae

Coragyps atratus (Black Vulture)

Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Black Vultures
During the early 20th century, Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) were, according to Beck (1924), a “Rare summer visitant from the south, associating with the turkey vultures of the lower Susquehanna.”  J. J. Libhart (1844 & 1869) doesn’t record the species at all during the mid-19th century in Lancaster County.  In the decades since 1980, these scavengers have expanded their range north (more cars = more carrion) and are currently found throughout the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain Provinces into southern New England.  They have become as numerous as Turkey Vultures in much of the lower Susquehanna valley, especially along the river.  Recently, Black Vultures have nested below ground level in forested York Haven Diabase boulder fields in the hills of the Gettysburg Basin near Conewago Falls.  Their breeding range presently extends into southern sections of the Appalachians (Ridge and Valley Province), but most withdraw back south of Blue Mountain to the Piedmont Province and beyond for the winter.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Turkey Vulture
The Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) is a year-round resident along the lower Susquehanna.  J. J. Libhart (1869) noted the “Turkey Buzzard” as a “frequent” summer resident.  Beck (1924) described it as present “Throughout the year, less common in winter.”  In Beck’s time it was “Less abundant northward…”, and was “…a regular breeder under the boulders of the Furnace Hills, which are approximately the bird’s northern limit in eastern Pennsylvania.”  Today it ranges north throughout New York, much of New England, and southern Ontario.  It is a very common migrant as it passes through southeastern Pennsylvania en route to and from these newly-colonized areas. 

Family-Pandionidae

Pandion haliaetus (Osprey)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Osprey
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus).

Family-Accipitridae

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)

Circus hudsonius (Northern Harrier)-PA Threatened

Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)

Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk)

Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)

Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)

Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)

Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)

Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Golden Eagle
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Harrier
Northern Harrier (Circus hudsonius).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Sharp-shinned Hawk
Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Cooper's Hawk
The Cooper’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was a migratory species of diminished numbers in the late 20th century.  Earlier, Libhart (1869) noted a “…rare specimen in my collection; shot in the county (Lancaster).”  Since the 1990s, it has found a niche in bird-rich suburban neighborhoods where a mix of deciduous and coniferous trees and shrubs have matured to provide suitable nesting habitat.  This juvenile (first-year) bird is eating a House Sparrow (Passer domesticus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Goshawk
A juvenile Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Bald Eagle
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Red-shouldered Hawk
Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Broad-winged Hawk
Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Red-tailed Hawk
Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

Order-Strigiformes

Family-Tytonidae

Tyto alba (Barn Owl)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Barn Owl
Barn Owl (Tyto alba).

Family-Strigidae

Megascops asio (Eastern Screech Owl)

Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)

Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)

Strix varia (Barred Owl)

Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)-historic [Brunner Island-circa 1955] PA Endangered

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Eastern Screech Owl
The Eastern Screech Owl (Megascops asio) is a resident species occurring in two color phases, red (above) and gray (below).  They are more frequently heard than seen in the Riparian Woodlands along the Susquehanna in the Gettysburg Basin.

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Eastern Screech Owl

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Great Horned Owl
Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Great Horned Owl
A juvenile Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Snowy Owl
Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus).
Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Tom Koerner)

Order-Coraciiformes

Family-Alcedinidae

Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Belted Kingfisher
The Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) can be found year-round at Conewago Falls.  They remain through the winter as long as there is open water available to find prey.  Beck (1924) described it as “The most generally familiar water bird of the county (Lancaster) along the creeks.”  It is apparently far less ubiquitous today.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Belted Kingfisher
A Belted Kingfisher approaching its nest burrow in a stream bank with a small fish.

Order-Piciformes

Family-Picidae

Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker)

Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker)

Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker)

Dryobates pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)

Dryobates villosus (Hairy Woodpecker)

Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker)

Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Red-headed Woodpeckers
Adult (left) and juvenile (right) Red-headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Red-bellied Woodpecker
Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Downy Woodpecker
The Downy Woodpecker (Dryobates pubescensis) is a common resident of woodlands in the river floodplain.  It is a familiar visitor to bird feeding stations throughout the lower Susquehanna valley.  The bird seen here is a male.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Downy Woodpecker
A female Downy Woodpecker (Dryobates pubescensis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Hairy Woodpecker
The Hairy Woodpecker (Dryobates villosus) is a year-round resident of the Alluvial Terrace Forests near Conewago Falls.  Beck (1924) noted it as “rather rare” within the lower Susquehanna valley in Lancaster County during the mid-19th through early 20th centuries, but it was still breeding regularly in Little Britain and Fulton Townships where some mature woodlands could be found.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Hairy Woodpecker
A female Hairy Woodpecker (Dryobates villosus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Flicker
Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Pileated Woodpecker
Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus).

Order-Falconiformes

Family-Falconidae

Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)

Falco columbarius (Merlin)

Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)PA Threatened

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: American Kestrel
American Kestrel (Falco sparverius).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Merlin
Merlin (Falco columbarius) with an Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: "Eastern Peregrine Falcon"
A specimen of the extinct “Eastern Peregrine Falcon” from the 19th century collection of the Lancaster Linnaean Society is on display at the North Museum in Lancaster, PA.  Libhart (1869) described them as “…common on the Susquehanna…often seizing the game shot down by the gunner…”  By the early 20th century, birds from this east coast population of the subspecies known as “American Peregrine” (Falco peregrinus anatum) were severely reduced in number in the lower Susquehanna valley by shooting and disturbances to their cliff-side nests, including egg collecting.  The last known nest on the river south of the Appalachians, found on April 7, 1880, was below Conewago Falls, in York County, on the Chickies Formation quartzite cliffs above the mouth of Codorous Creek near Haldeman Riffles.  Another peregrine specimen in the North Museum display, collected in Lancaster County in February, 1895, provides evidence that the shooting of transient birds continued long after nesting had ended locally.  The widespread use of DDT insecticide in the mid-20th century is generally believed to be responsible for the reproductive failure that eliminated the remaining “Eastern Peregrine Falcon” population by 1960.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: "Tundra Peregrine"
The pale “Tundra Peregrine” (Falco peregrinus tundrius) is a highly migratory subspecies that passes through the Mid-Atlantic region during its long journeys between arctic breeding grounds and wintering sites as far south as South America.  After 1960, migrating “Tundra Peregrines” were the only subspecies seen on the east coast until the establishment of introduced birds.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Peregrine Falcon
The Eastern Peregrine Falcon’s “replacement” is a captive-bred cross between a variety of surviving subspecies.  Beginning in 1974, young peregrines were released at “hacking sites” in the east by the Peregrine Fund under the guidance of Thomas Cade to begin reestablishing a breeding population.  These introduced birds were crosses of various subspecies, mostly “American Peregrines” (Falco peregrinus anatum) from surviving western populations and “Peale’s Peregrines” (Falco peregrinus pealei) from the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska.  The peregrine seen here is typical of the descendants of these introduced birds.  They presently nest at several man-made sites along the lower Susquehanna.  Within the Gettysburg Basin, these sites include the top of a reactor building on Three Mile Island and a man-made structure at the power plant on Brunner Island.  Like the “Eastern Peregrine Falcon”, the introduced peregrines are a non-migratory resident population, though many roam widely throughout the east coast region during the fall and winter.

Order-Passeriformes

Family-Tyrannidae

Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)

Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird)

Contopus virens (Eastern Wood Pewee)

Empidonax virescens (Acadian Flycatcher)

Empidonax traillii (Willow Flycatcher)

Empidonax minimus (Least Flycatcher)

Empidonax species

Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe)

Sayornis saya (Say’s Phoebe)-historic [Brunner Island-Dec., 1957]

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Great Crested Flycatcher
Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Eastern Kingbird
Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Eastern Wood Pewee
Eastern Wood Pewee (Contopus virens).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Acadian Flycatcher
Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Willow Flycatcher
Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Eastern Phoebe
Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Eastern Phoebe
Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe).
Say’s Phoebe (Sayornis saya).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Lee Karney)

Family-Vireonidae

Vireo griseus (White-eyed Vireo)

Vireo flavifrons (Yellow-throated Vireo)

Vireo solitarius (Blue-headed Vireo)

Vireo philadelphicus (Philadelphia Vireo)

Vireo gilvus (Warbling Vireo)

Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: White-eyed Vireo
White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Yellow-throated Vireo
Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Blue-headed Vireo
Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo solitarius).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Philadelphia Vireos
Philadelphia Vireos (Vireo philadelphicus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Warbling Vireo
Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Red-eyed Vireo
Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus).

Family-Corvidae

Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)

Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)

Corvus ossifragus (Fish Crow)

Corvus corax (Common Raven)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Blue Jay
Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: American Crow
American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Fish Crow
In the mid-19th century, The Fish Crow (Corvus ossifragus) was described by Libhart (1869) as “Not uncommon along the river, especially where fish pots are.”  By the early 20th century, they were described by Beck (1924) as “somewhat rare” along the river, but it was thought they may nest in the hills there.  Since 1980, Fish Crows have ventured away from the Atlantic Coastal Plain in numbers and expanded their range northward along the Susquehanna and its tributaries.  They are regular spring and fall migrants at Conewago Falls in noisy flocks usually numbering up to several dozen birds.  Currently, Fish Crows nest along many of the valley’s waterways, and in upland areas near food sources such as trash.  Some flocks overwinter in the Piedmont Province near busy restaurants with well-stocked dumpsters or littered parking lots.  Fish Crows are far less common than their closely related near look-alike, the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and are generally more curious and comical around humans.  Fish Crows can best be identified by their call, a nasal two-syllable “Cuh-Ah”, which sounds more spoken than the shouted “Caw”…”Caw”…”Caw” of the American Crow.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Raven
The Common Raven (Corvus corax) has long been a secretive bird of the mountainous regions of the Susquehanna watershed, seldom visiting the Piedmont Province.  “I have no authentic information that it now exists in the county; if it does, it is extremely rare,” noted Judge Libhart of Lancaster County in 1869.  Beck (1924) relates a report from Abraham B. Miller from the same county, “A bird observed with crows during the winter of 1917 might possibly have been a raven.”

 

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Raven
During the 21st century, the Common Raven has become less wary of human activity and is now seen in the Piedmont Province year-round.  In recent years, they have nested along both the northwest and southeast perimeters of the Gettysburg Basin in Epler Formation limestone quarries and on Chickies Formation cliffs at riverside.  A few are regular visitors to Conewago Falls.  Their playful antics and repertoire of vocalizations reveal their intelligence while delighting the attentive observer.

Family-Alaudidae

Eremophila alpestris (Horned Lark)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Horned Lark
Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris).

Family-Hirundinidae

Progne subis (Purple Martin)

Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow)

Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Northern Rough-winged Swallow)

Riparia riparia (Bank Swallow)

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Cliff Swallow)

Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Purple Martins
Purple Martins (Progne subis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Tree Swallows
Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Rough-winged Swallow
At Conewago Falls, the Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) is a common spring migrant and summer resident that regularly nests in the voids between the boulders used to construct the York Haven Dam.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Rough-winged Swallows
J. J. Libhart (1869) found the Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) to be abundant in Lancaster County.  Beck (1924) noted that they were plentiful along the Susquehanna and that nesting locations included “bridge piers, quarry faces, and lime kilns”.  In September, thousands gather in the vicinity of Conewago Falls before departing to the south for winter.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Bank Swallows
Bank Swallows (Riparia riparia) swarming over the Susquehanna at Brunner Island.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Cliff Swallow
Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Barn Swallow
Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica).

Family-Paridae

Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)

Poecile carolinensis Poecile atricapillus (Carolina/Black-capped Chickadee hybrid)

Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee)

Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Carolina Chickadee
Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: possible Carolina/Black-capped Chickadee hybrid
Possible Carolina/Black-capped Chickadee hybrid (Poecile carolinensis Poecile atricapillus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Black-capped Chickadee
Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Tufted Titmouse
Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor).

Family-Sittidae

Sitta canadensis (Red-breasted Nuthatch)

Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Red-breasted Nuthatch
Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: White-breasted Nuthatch
The White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) is a resident cavity-nester in the Riparian Woodlands along the Susquehanna.  Beck (1924) called it “rare as a breeding species” in Lancaster County in the early 20th century.  Succession and reforestation of barren landscapes facilitated the return of this and many other species of arboreal birds.

Family-Certhiidae

Certhia americana (Brown Creeper)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Brown Creeper
Brown Creeper (Certhia americana).

Family-Troglodytidae

Troglodytes aedon (House Wren)

Troglodytes hiemalis (Winter Wren)

Cistothorus platensis (Sedge Wren)-accidental [fall 2000] PA Endangered

Cistothorus palustris (Marsh Wren)

Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: House Wren
House Wren (Troglodytes aedon).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Winter Wren
Winter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis).
Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis).  (United States Geological Survey image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Marsh Wren
Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Carolina Wren
The inquisitive Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus) is an energetic resident species that sings in all seasons.  Beck (1924) called it the “Characteristic bird of the River Hills up to the Dauphin line.”  Since about 1950, it has gradually expanded its range northward along the Susquehanna and its tributaries.  Bad winters can sometimes severely deplete their populations in these newly colonized areas, but they seem to rebound within a year or two.  Since 1980, the species has become consistently common in the vicinity of Conewago Falls, no longer being on the periphery of its range there.

Family-Polioptilidae

Polioptilia caerulea (Blue-gray Gnatcatcher)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptilia caerulea).

Family-Regulidae

Regulus satrapa (Golden-crowned Kinglet)

Regulus calendula (Ruby-crowned Kinglet)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Golden-crowned Kinglet
Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula).

Family-Turdidae

Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)

Catharus fuscescens (Veery)

Catharus minimus (Gray-cheeked Thrush)-accidental [spring 2018]

Catharus ustalatus (Swainson’s Thrush)

Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush)

Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush)

Turdus migratorius (American Robin)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Eastern Bluebirds
A pair of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: male Eastern Bluebird
A male Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) atop a nest box.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: female Eastern Bluebird
A female Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) approaches its nest.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Veery
Veery (Catharus fuscescens).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Swainson's Thrush
Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustalatus).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Hermit Thrush
Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Wood Thrush
Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: American Robin
The American Robin (Turdus migratorius) is a familiar year-round resident and abundant migrant along the Susquehanna at Conewago Falls.  Good crops of wild berries (Poison Ivy, Riverbank Grape, Asiatic Bittersweet, Northern Hackberry, Common Spicebush, etc.) will prompt larger numbers to overwinter in the floodplain forests.

Family-Mimidae

Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird)

Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher)

Mimis polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Gray Catbird
Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Brown Thrasher
Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Mockingbird
Northern Mockingbird (Mimis polyglottos).

Family-Sturnidae

Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)introduced

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: breeding alternate plumage European Starling
European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: winter basic plumage European Starling
European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) in winter (basic) plumage.

Family-Bombycillidae

Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Cedar Waxwing
The Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum) was reported by Beck (1924) to be common in the mid-19th century in Lancaster County, but “now rare as a nesting species.”  It is a known wanderer, spending much of the year in flocks searching for supplies of wild berries, which are promptly consumed.  The Cedar Waxwing nests in the Riparian Woodlands of Conewago Falls in mid-summer, becoming, at least temporarily, an adept riverside fly catcher to supply protein to growing nestlings.  It is a common to abundant fall migrant.

Family-Passeridae

Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)introduced

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: male House Sparrow
A male House Sparrow (Passer domesticus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: female House Sparrow
A female House Sparrow (Passer domesticus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: juvenile House Sparrows
Recently fledged House Sparrows (Passer domesticus).  Thanks to their close relationship with humans, House Sparrows are presently the world’s most widely distributed and successful species of surviving dinosaur.

Family-Motacillidae

Anthus rubescens (American Pipit)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: American Pipit
American Pipit (Anthus rubescens).  (Vintage 35mm image)

Family-Fringillidae

Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak)

Haemorhous mexicanus (House Finch)introduced

Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch)

Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill)-accidental [winter 2012-13]

Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin)

Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Evening Grosbeaks
Evening Grosbeaks (Coccothraustes vespertinus).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: House Finches
The House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) is a native transplant in eastern North America.  During the 1940s, caged birds from California (“Hollywood Finches”) intended for sale as pets in New York City were released by vendors to evade charges under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.  These introduced birds began reproducing and spreading quickly throughout suburbia along the northeast corridor, reaching southeastern Pennsylvania by the mid-1950s.  By 1977, they were well-established and regularly nesting in the vicinity of Conewago Falls and elsewhere in the lower Susquehanna valley.  By early in the 21st century, the descendants of the introduced birds had spread west to intermix with the original population, creating one contiguous continent-wide range.  In the northeast, House Finches are being tallied at some bird migration monitoring stations in the fall.  Southward autumn movements are occurring.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: male Purple Finch and House Finches
An adult male Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus) flanked by male House Finches.  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: first-winter male Purple Finch
A first-winter male Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus) in mid-March.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: female or juvenile male Purple Finch
A female or juvenile male Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus) in fall.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Pine Siskin
Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: winter basic plumage American Goldfinch
American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis) in winter (basic) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: breeding alternate plumage American Goldfinches
American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) in spring/summer breeding (alternate) plumage.

Family-Calcariidae

Plectrophenax nivalis (Snow Bunting)-accidental [fall 1991]

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Snow Bunting
Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis).

Family-Passerellidae

Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee)

Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow)

Spizella passerina (Chipping Sparrow)

Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow)

Pooecetes gramineus (Vesper Sparrow)-accidental [spring 2011]

Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow)

Ammodramus savannarum (Grasshopper Sparrow)-accidental [summer 1997]

Ammospiza leconteii (LeConte’s Sparrow)

Ammospiza maritima (Seaside Sparrow)-accidental [fall 2014]

Ammospiza nelsoni (Nelson’s Sparrow)

Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow)

Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow)

Melospiza lincolnii (Lincoln’s Sparrow)

Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow)

Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)

Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow)

Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Eastern (Rufous-sided) Towhee
Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: American Tree Sparrow
American Tree Sparrow (Spizelloides arborea).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult Chipping Sparrow in breeding alternate plumage
An adult Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina) in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult Chipping Sparrows in basic plumage
Adult Chipping Sparrows (Spizella passerina) in basic plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: juvenile first-fall Chipping Sparrow
A first-fall Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult Field Sparrow
An adult Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: juvenile first-winter Field Sparrow
A first-winter Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Savannah Sparrow
Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis).
Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Aron Flanders)
LeConte’s Sparrow (Ammospiza leconteii).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Alex Galt)
Seaside Sparrow (Ammospiza maritima).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image Michael Carlo)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Fox Sparrow
Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Song Sparrow
The Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) occurs year-round along the Susquehanna in the Gettysburg Basin, with birds that make up the population changing through the seasons.  It is a regular nesting and wintering species, becoming more abundant during the spring and fall migrations.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Lincoln's Sparrow
Lincoln’s Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Swamp Sparrow
Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: White-throated Sparrow white-striped morph
A white-striped morph White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: White-throated Sparrow tan-striped morph
A tan-striped morph White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult White-crowned Sparrow
White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: juvenile first-winter White-crowned Sparrow
A first-winter White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Dark-eyed Junco
The Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis) is a common migrant and winter resident in the lower Susquehanna valley.  Libhart (1869) described the “Common Snow Bird” as “Very frequent” in autumn and winter in Lancaster County.  Beck (1924) noted the “slate-colored junco” or “snowbird” as “…most abundant in mid winter and early spring.”

Family-Icteriidae

Icteria virens (Yellow-breasted Chat)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Yellow-breasted Chat
Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens).

Family-Icteridae

Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Bobolink)

Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark)

Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole)

Icterus bullockii (Bullock’s Oriole)-hypothetical [winter 1997]

Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole)

Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)

Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)

Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird)

Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: male Bobolink in breeding alternate plumage
A male Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Bobolinks in basic plumage
Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) in late summer.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Eastern Meadowlark
Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult male Orchard Oriole
A male Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: first-spring male Orchard Oriole
A first-spring male Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: female Orchard Oriole
A female Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: male Baltimore Oriole
A male Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: female Baltimore Oriole
A female Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula) beginning construction of its distinctive hanging nest.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult male Red-winged Blackbird
An adult male Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult female Red-winged Blackbird
An adult female Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: juvenile Red-winged Blackbird
Juvenile Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), both male and female, leave the nest with a streaky plumage resembling that of an adult female.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult Brown-headed Cowbirds
Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: juvenile Brown-headed Cowbird
A juvenile Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Rusty Blackbirds
Rusty Blackbirds (Euphagus carolinus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Grackle
Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Grackle and European Starling
Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) with European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

Family-Parulidae

Seiurus aurocapilla (Ovenbird)

Helmitheros vermivorum (Worm-eating Warbler)

Parkesia motacilla (Louisiana Waterthrush)

Parkesia noveboracensis (Northern Waterthrush)

Vermivora chrysoptera (Golden-winged Warbler)

Vermivora cyanoptera (Blue-winged Warbler)

Mniotilta varia (Black-and-white Warbler)

Protonotaria citrea (Prothonotary Warbler)

Oreothlypis peregrina (Tennessee Warbler)

Oreothlypis celata (Orange-crowned Warbler)

Oreothlypis ruficapilla (Nashville Warbler)

Oporornis agilis (Connecticut Warbler)-accidental [fall 1983]

Oporonis tolmiei (MacGillivray’s Warbler)-accidental [fall 2013]

Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)

Setophaga citrina (Hooded Warbler)

Setophaga ruticilla (American Redstart)

Setophaga tigrina (Cape May Warbler)

Setophaga cerulea (Cerulean Warbler)

Setophaga americana (Northern Parula)

Setophaga magnolia (Magnolia Warbler)

Setophaga castanea (Bay-breasted Warbler)

Setophaga fusca (Blackburnian Warbler)

Setophaga petechia (Yellow Warbler)

Setophaga pensylvanica (Chestnut-sided Warbler)

Setophaga striata (Blackpoll Warbler)-PA Endangered

Setophaga caerulescens (Black-throated Blue Warbler)

Setophaga palmarum (Palm Warbler)

Setophaga pinus (Pine Warbler)

Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler)

Setophaga dominica (Yellow-throated Warbler)

Setophaga discolor (Prairie Warbler)

Setophaga virens (Black-throated Green Warbler)

Cardellina canadensis (Canada Warbler)

Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s Warbler)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Ovenbird
Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla).
Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorum).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Dan Sudia)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Louisiana Waterthrush
Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Louisiana Waterthrush
Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Waterthrush
Northern Waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis).
Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera).  (United States Fish and Wildlife Service image by Walt Ford)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Blue-winged Warbler
Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Black-and-white Warbler
An adult male Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia) in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Black-and-white Warbler
An adult female Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Black-and-white Warbler
Black-and-white Warblers feed like nuthatches, searching the bark of trees for invertebrates.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Prothonotary Warbler
The Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) is a cavity-nesting summer resident of the Wet Hardwood Flatwoods and quiet forested shorelines of the Susquehanna below Conewago Falls.  Judge Libhart (1869) noted it as “rare” and Beck (1924) described it as “Very rare”.
Orange-crowned Warbler (Oreothlypis celata).  (United States Fish and Wildlife service image by Dave Menke)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Nashville Warbler
Nashville Warbler (Oreothlypis ruficapilla).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult male Common Yellowthroat
An adult male Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: juvenile male Common Yellowthroat
A first-fall male Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Common Yellowthroat
Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Hooded Warbler
Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult male American Redstart
An adult male American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: second-fall male American Redstart
A second-fall male American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: first-spring male American Redstart
A first-spring male American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: female American Redstart
A female American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult male Cape May Warbler basic plumage
An adult male Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina) in basic plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: male Cape May Warbler in basic plumage
A male Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina) in basic plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Cape May Warbler
A Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Parula
An adult male Northern Parula (Setophaga americana).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult female Northern Parula
An adult female Northern Parula (Setophaga americana).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: juvenile Northern Parula
A juvenile Northern Parula (Setophaga americana).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Magnolia Warbler
An adult male Magnolia Warbler (Setophaga magnolia).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Magnolia Warbler
Magnolia Warbler (Setophaga magnolia).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult male Bay-breasted Warbler
An adult male Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea) in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Bay-breasted Warbler
Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Blackburnian Warbler
An adult male Blackburnian Warbler (Setophaga fusca) in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Blackburnian Warbler
Blackburnian Warbler (Setophaga fusca).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult male Yellow Warbler
An adult male Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Yellow Warbler
Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Chestnut-sided Warbler
Chestnut-sided Warbler (Setophaga pensylvanica).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Blackpoll Warbler
Blackpoll Warbler (Setophaga striata).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Blackpoll Warbler
Blackpoll Warbler (Setophaga striata).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult male Black-throated Blue Warbler
An adult male Black-throated Blue Warbler (Setophaga caerulescens).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Palm Warbler
Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Pine Warbler
Pine Warbler (Setophaga pinus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Yellow-rumped Warbler
An adult male Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata) in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: male Yellow-rumped Warbler in basic plumage
A male Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata) in basic plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Yellow-rumped Warbler in basic plumage
A Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata) in basic plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Yellow-throated Warbler
Yellow-throated Warbler (Setophaga dominica).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Prairie Warbler
Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor).  (Vintage 35 mm image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult male Black-throated Green Warbler
An adult male Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga virens).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Black-throated Green Warbler
Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga virens).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Black-throated Green Warbler
Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga virens).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Canada Warbler
Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Wilson's Warbler
Wilson’s Warbler (Cardellina pusilla).

Family-Cardinalidae

Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager)

Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)

Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak)

Passerina caerulea (Blue Grosbeak)

Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting)

Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: male Scarlet Tanager
A male Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea) in breeding (alternate) plumage.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Scarlet Tanager
Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Northern Cardinals
A male (left) and a female (right) Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: male Rose-breasted Grosbeaks
During spring migration, startlingly brilliant adult male Rose-breasted Grosbeaks (Pheucticus ludovicianus) will sometimes make surprise visits to bird feeding stations.  (Charles A. Fox image)
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: Rose-breasted Grosbeak
A Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: adult male Blue Grosbeak
An adult male Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea).
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: non-adult Blue Grosbeaks
Non-adult Blue Grosbeaks (Passerina caerulea) in August.  The immature male to the left is just over one year of age and the juvenile to the right has recently fledged.  Females of all ages resemble the juvenile seen here, having no blue plumage at all.
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: male Indigo Bunting
The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) is a common summer resident that nests in successional habitat.  Along the Susquehanna, the species is particularly fond of railroad and utility right-of-ways.  In Lancaster County, Judge Libhart (1869) called the “Indigo Bird” frequent as a summer resident.   Beck (1924) described it as, “…fairly common.  Never very far from copse or cover, never very near houses.”
Birds of Conewago Falls in the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed: female Indigo Bunting
A female Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) collecting cobwebs for binding together the materials used for nest building.

SOURCES

Agnolin, Frederico, and Fernando E. Novas.  2013.  “Avian Ancestors. A Review of the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Theropods Unenlagiidae, Microraptoria, Anchiornis, and Scansoriopterygidae”.  SpringerBriefs in Earth System Sciences.  pp.1-96.

Beck, Herbert H.  1924.  A Chapter on the Ornithology of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.  The Lewis Historical Publishing Company.  New York, NY.

Brauning, Daniel W.  1992.  Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania.  University of Pittsburgh Press.  Pittsburgh, PA.

Carrano, Matthew T., and Scott D. Sampson.  2008.  “The Phylogeny of Ceratosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda)”.  Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.  6:2.  pp.183-236.

Chesser, R. T., K. J. Burns, C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, I. J. Lovette, P. C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., D. F. Stotz, B. M. Winger, and K. Winker.  2018.  Check-list of North American Birds (online).  American Ornithological Society.  http://checklist.aou.org/taxa

Ezcura, Martin D., and Gilles Cuny.  2007.  “The Coelophysoid Lophostropheus airelensis, gen. nov.: A Review of the Systematics of “Liliensternus” airelensis from the Triassic-Jurassic Outcrops of Normandy (France).   Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.  27:1.  pp.73-86.

Gregory, Joseph T.  1952.  “The Jaws of Cretaceous Toothed Birds: Ichthyornis and Hesperornis“.  Condor.  54:2.  pp.73-88.

Hendrickx, Christophe, Scott A. Hartman, and Octavio Mateus.  2015.  “An Overview of Non-Avian Theropod Discoveries and Classification”.  PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology.  12:1.  pp.1-73.

Jaggard, Victoria.  “The Dinosaurs That Didn’t Die”.  National Geographic.  May, 2018.  pp.78-97.

Libhart, John J.  1844.  “Birds of Lancaster County”.  I. Daniel Rupp’s History of Lancaster County.  Gilbert Hills.  Lancaster, PA.  pp.508-511.

Libhart, John J.  1869.  “Ornithology”.  J. I. Mombert’s An Authentic History of Lancaster County.  J. E. Barr and Company.  Lancaster, PA.  pp.502-516.

Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program.  PNHP Species Lists.  www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Species.aspx  Accessed August 14, 2019.